The most frequently diagnosed endocrine cancer, which causes more deaths than any other endocrine cancer, is thyroid cancer. Cancer stem cells are rare cells found in tumors that can regenerate themselves, phenotypically leads to various tumor cell populations and trigger tumorigenesis. Cancer stem cells have been identified in many cancers, including thyroid cancer. Having an understanding of the molecular mechanisms which control the biology of cancer stem cells and the disease processes will help us in designing more rational targeted therapies for aggressive thyroid cancers. In this review, we aimed to present the current accepted knowledge about thyroid stem cells, information regarding the cellular origin of thyroid cancer stem cells, and the clinical results of cancer stem cells present in the thyroid gland.
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