Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease characterized by insufficient insulin production of the pancreatic beta-cells. Patients with T1DM will have a higher risk of other autoimmune disorders like celiac and thyroid diseases. Hypothyroidism is the failure of the thyroid gland to secrete an adequate amount of thyroxine, which is required for physical growth, brain development, and cellular metabolism. Most studies reported that children with T1DM have a higher incidence of hypothyroidism than normal children, with 9.6% having hypothyroidism and 19% having positive anti-TPO antibodies. Hypothyroidism will aggravate the condition in a child with T1DM and vice versa. Uncontrolled diabetes for a long time might increase insulin resistance due to complete depression of the hypothalamus-pituitary thyroid axis. A rare complication of poorly controlled T1DM is Mauriac syndrome, characterized by elevated liver enzymes, hyperlipidemia, cushingoid features, growth retardation, and hepatomegaly due to glycogenic hepatopathy. Van Wyk–Grumbach syndrome is also a rare complication of long-standing, untreated hypothyroidism, manifested by breast development, multicystic ovary, uterine bleeding associated with lack of pubic and axillary hair growth, and delayed bone age. Here, we report a case with two rare complications of Mauriac syndrome and Van Wyk–Grumbach syndrome in a child with hypothyroidism and poorly controlled T1DM.
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